Growth Without Industrialization?

I share with you a very good article by Dani Rodrik, an economist whom I appreciate very much. This paper also illustrates how reality sometimes goes faster than economists can predict. We must therefore be agile and flexible in our approach to industrialization policies.

Low-income African countries can sustain moderate rates of productivity growth into the future, on the back of steady improvements in human capital and governance. But the evidence suggests that, without manufacturing gains, the growth rates brought about recently by rapid structural change are exceptional and may not last.

CAMBRIDGE – Despite low world prices for the commodities on which they tend to depend, many of the world’s poorest economies have been doing well. Sub-Saharan Africa’s economic growth has slowed precipitously since 2015, but this reflects specific problems in three of its largest economies (Nigeria, Angola, and South Africa). Ethiopia, Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Rwanda are all projected to achieve growth of 6% or higher this year. In Asia, the same is true of India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

This is all good news, but it is also puzzling. Developing economies that manage to grow rapidly on a sustained basis without relying on natural-resource booms – as most of these countries have for a decade or more – typically do so through export-oriented industrialization. But few of these countries are experiencing much industrialization. The share of manufacturing in low-income Sub-Saharan countries is broadly stagnant – and in some cases declining. And despite much talk about “Make in India,” one of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s catchphrases, the country shows little indication of rapid industrialization.

Full article here

Malnutrition is not just hunger, it is also a mortgage on the future of our populations

There is sometimes pleasing news about the progress of our continent. Recently, for example, a report of the Malabo-Montpellier Panel was published as part of the Forum for the Green Revolution in Africa (AGRF), which met in Abidjan. This report, entitled Food: How can Africa build a future without hunger or malnutrition?, reported that many African countries have been able to drastically reduce malnutrition over the past 15 years. But what is stressed above all by the food security experts involved in this study is that these good results have been achieved through strong political will in each of the states concerned.

 Disparities remain large by country, but the report points out that the proportion of people suffering from hunger has declined overall from 28 to 20% in Africa between 1990 and 2015. However, the total number of people is increasing due to population growth which is indeed a multiplier of the problems of our countries (see previous articles).

According to the report, “some countries have made remarkable progress. Senegal, Ghana and Rwanda all reduced the number of people suffering from malnutrition and the number of children suffering from stunting by more than 50%. Angola, Cameroon, Ethiopia and Togo have achieved reductions of more than 40%. “

Panel Co-Chair Joachim von Braun explains that “Governments are able to fight malnutrition when they put it first in their agenda and in their inter-ministerial implementation programs and in close collaboration with partners. Investment is needed for crisis prevention and the development of programs to build resilience to climate stress“.

Several initiatives are highlighted in the Panel’s report because they have borne fruits in countries as varied as Angola, Senegal or Ghana. In Angola, a multisectoral approach to reducing malnutrition and coordinating actions and programs at the level of the Ministry of Agriculture supported by the Ministry of Health has greatly contributed to the successful outcome of the National Food and Nutrition Security Strategy. In Senegal, a unit to fight malnutrition was set up in 2001, followed by the launch of the Nutrition Enhancement Program in 2002. Finally, in Ghana, which has succeeded in halving the number of inhabitants affected by hunger, the authorities have decided to integrate the nutritional issue at all levels of government policy.

It should be remembered that malnutrition is not just hunger. Indeed the fact of eating poorly and not eating enough, has long lasting and profound consequences on the physical, but also mental development of children, and these consequences will always be there when these children become adults, especially intellectually. Secondly, there are obviously consequences of malnutrition that are part of public health. This question must therefore be taken very seriously by the rulers.

A simple example: contrary to what one might think, Africa is also threatened by obesity. Experts reminded us: “The consumption of low-cost, low-nutritional foods, as well as the reduction of physical activity in the middle class, increase the levels of obesity. The estimated prevalence of obesity among children is expected to reach 11% by 2025.

Finally, the report points out that despite these encouraging results, much remains to be done. “Significant challenges still need to be addressed. To achieve the goals set out in the African Union’s Declaration of Malabo and Agenda 2063, governments must learn from their past successes and redouble their efforts to address the triple scourge of hunger, malnutrition and obesity on the continent said co-chairman of the Panel, Dr. Ousmane Badiane.

Climate change is of course a particularly important threat, but also urbanization, which is causing a lot of pressure on food producers.

Human capital: Africa still has a lot of progress to make

The World Economic Forum recently published a report on an often difficult to measure reality: the economic value of human capital. The report, titled Global Human Capital Report 2017, measures the knowledge and its levels that enable human beings to contribute to the global economy throughout their lives. Each of the 130 countries studied in the world is ranked in this index, which unfortunately no doubt shows that Africa is lagging behind.

As often in these rankings, the United States and Western Europe are at the top, with a rate of more than 70% of development of their human capital. For their part, the countries of Africa, like those of Southeast Asia and the Middle East, are below 60%. On average, sub-Saharan Africa scored 52.97%, and this region ranks last good, according to the report. However, there are disparities in Africa that are sources of inspiration: countries such as Rwanda (71), Ghana (72), but also Cameroon (73) and Mauritius (74) the 60%. There is therefore no fatality. We will come back on this idea.

The World Economic Forum’s report explains that it has studied 26 countries south of the Sahara among which there is a great disparity of wealth. But, “despite this comparatively high regional diversity in income levels, the Sub-Saharan African region exhibits a number of similar patterns across all age groups and aspects of its human capital potential profile. In particular, Sub-Saharan Africa scores highly on the Deployment subindex, due to high labour force participation, with five of the top 10 countries hailing from the region”.

However, with below-average Capacity and Know-how subindex scores, the region as a whole has much to benefit from developing a greater share of its human capital from deployment beyond routine occupations”, experts noted. They are also concerned that the most economically and / or most populous economies remain at the bottom of the scale.

Thus, Nigeria and Ethiopia are at the bottom of the ranking, respectively in ranks 114 and 127. However, to moderate this finding, these two countries are also the most populous in Africa. South Africa, considered one of Africa’s leading economies with Nigeria, is ranked 87th. But the report is not just bad news. The two top-ranked countries in the region, Rwanda (71) and Ghana (72), owe their comparatively strong performance to, respectively, almost completely closed education and employment gender gaps and significantly improved educational attainment of the country’s younger generations. “Like Kenya (78), both countries benefit from the stock of know-how embodied in large medium-skilled employment sectors and comparatively strong education quality and staff training, laying the foundation for building their future human capital potential. However, all three countries still have room for further improvement in their secondary education enrolment rates, ensuring this progress is shared as broadly as possible across their populations”, the report stressed.

Quality secondary education is the cornerstone of the entire education system because it corrects the deficiencies of primary education and prepares adequately for tertiary education. The example of these countries demonstrates that there is a need for it, that there is no inevitability, and that Africa can also, when it conducts good policies, achieve successes. In the global competition for human capital, Africa with its growing youth, of course has a card to play.  In particular, it must ensure the training of its young people in the trades that are lacking on the continent: engineers, financiers, economists, miners, among others. There are pools of developing jobs, but the shortage of skilled African personnel forces investors to hire expatriates in certain sectors requiring special skills. There, too, there is no fatality.

Tourism is a key-sector for inclusive growth in Africa

One of the consequences of globalization is that “the world has become flat” if I were to appropriate the expression of the American columnist Thomas Friedman. Indeed, the development of transport, in particular air transport, and the consecutive decline in prices, have led, among other things, to a sharp increase in tourist flows. This not counting the window opened on the world by internet making us want to go to discover the world beyond our garden.

Africa also benefits from the increase in tourism flows. According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the continent welcomed 57.8 million tourists in 2016, 4.4 million more than in 2015. According to UNWTO projections, tourism in Africa could reach 134 million by 2030. In its 2017 report on African economic development, UNCTAD draws our attention to the economic importance of tourism on the African continent: tourism accounts for 6.8% African GNP and represents more than 21 million jobs (about one in fourteen jobs). In total, tourism is the continent’s second largest sector.

One of the interesting points highlighted in the UNCTAD report is the fact that it is the Africans themselves who are increasingly driving tourism demand in Africa. Indeed, four out of ten international tourists are Africans. Tourism is a sector especially interesting to study because it reflects the stakes of our continent: the weight of Africans in international tourism in Africa underlines the emergence of an African middle class, while the obstacles to its development are the same as for the economy in general: lack of infrastructure, energy deficit, hindrances to the movement of people…

Africa has such an untapped potential. Indeed, these figures must be put into perspective as tourism accounts about 10% of GDP elsewhere in the world. If the total number of tourists is reported to the continent’s population (about 1.2 billion), the figure of 57.8 million tourists is low. Let us recall that a country like France welcomes more tourists (about 83 million) than it has inhabitants (about 66 million) …

However, like other sectors of the African economy, tourism in Africa could benefit from the digital revolution. A new generation of entrepreneurs wants to show another side of Africa, more authentic, by showing other things than the classics of African tourism. Three innovative projects (Tastemakers Africa, Hip Africa, Visit Africa) led by diaspora entrepreneurs participate to the change of the image of the continent. The use of social networks is a powerful marketing tool for these websites, notably with Instagram.

NEPAD also addressed this issue through the Nepad Tourism Action Plan (TAP) on the recommendation of the African Conference of Tourism Ministers. The TAP will serve as a roadmap for sustainable tourism for the African continent. The plan focuses on six key points: the political and legislative environment of tourism; its institutional capacity; tourism marketing; R & D; investment in infrastructure and tourism products; human resources and quality control. NEPAD considers tourism as a powerful tool for both regional integration and socio-economic development that supports poverty reduction.

I will therefore speak on this theme of improving the engine of growth in Africa through sustainable tourism during a round table that we will organize on September 21 at the 72nd session of the the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). According to me, tourism is a real opportunity as it can be used for transformative and inclusive growth, in particular by facilitating the inclusion of vulnerable communities and by participating in the preservation of our environment.

Protecting wild fauna is a sovereignty challenge

Africa often makes headlines in the international media for poaching, which I deplore and strongly condemn. By 2015, a Minnesota dentist had provoked an international outcry by shooting down the famous Cecil lion in Zimbabwe during a “big game sport hunt”. But we forget that poaching does not only kill animals, it also kills our fellow citizens. A few weeks ago, famed South African elephant advocate Wayne Lotter fell in ambush in Dar Es Salaam, killed in cold blood by two hooded men. Wayne Lotter was an icon of the honorable fight for the protection of wildlife in Africa, but let us not forget that every day thousands of people are involved in this cause, sometimes at the risk of their lives.

The trap would be to believe that these events, although repetitive, remain only isolated incidents. One could imagine that they are the act of some scattered traffickers or hunters with the archaic mentality of cowboys. The development of reserves and the strengthening of wildlife protection laws would almost lead us to believe that everything has been done to avoid the extinction of certain species on the African continent.

On 7 September, the NGO TRAFFIC published a study on illegal ivory trade in five Central African countries [i]. This study is overwhelming for two reasons: not only are more and more powerful criminal networks at work, but they benefit mainly from the weak governance of some African countries. While states have actually passed stricter legislation against ivory trade with increased enforcement efforts, small retailers and sculptors are the main victims. However, these initiatives remain insufficient in a context where transnational underground criminal networks increasingly take up ivory trafficking.

One of the factors explaining in particular the virtual disappearance of the local markets where ivory was sold for clandestinity is the new takeover of Asian traffickers, essentially Chinese, present from end to end of the chain of this shadow trade. Asia is the central source of demand for ivory, but supply is mainly in Africa. Faced with these transnational crime networks, states must deploy all means to prevent poaching and arrest these criminals. Unfortunately, a member of the NGO, Sone Nkoke, explains that traffickers regularly “benefit from the weakness of state governance as well as from collusion, confusion and corruption of authority”. Without the complacency and corruption of high-ranking people, it is indeed difficult to imagine that such trafficking can take place.

The problem of the illegal trade in ivory is a perfect example to illustrate the complexity of acting in a globalized world. At the local level, states must effectively strengthen their governance and law enforcement, raise awareness and involve local communities in these issues, which are ecological and human disasters. But transnational crime requires, as the name suggests, a global response. Cooperating with Asian countries to dismantle these trafficker networks and incite them to prohibit ivory trade is fundamental to the hope of saving African elephants. Surely, Beijing’s commitment to close its domestic ivory market by the end of the year is going in the right direction.

Protecting African elephants from extinction is therefore more than an ecological issue. It is also a human drama unfolding before our eyes. Poachers and criminals do not hesitate to assassinate our fellow citizens by the greed of “white gold”. But it is also a matter of political sovereignty: as long as these traffickers are rampant in Africa, they will be a reflection of our failure to enforce and respect the law. Can a State that is not capable of protecting its wildlife be capable of protecting its fellow citizens? Surely, this is a question that all our governments must ask themselves today.

South Africa, Nigeria: turning growth into wealth for all

For the past few days, economists and analysts have been cautiously pleased that two economic locomotives in Africa are returning to positive growth rates. Nigeria and South Africa, which have competed for years as the continent’s leading economies, are experiencing a growth rate of 0.55% and 2.5% respectively.

These numbers are positive, but is that enough? These statistics are only a reflection of a situation at a given moment, the expression of some interesting performances in certain areas, in particular agricultural or mineral raw materials. The economic agency Bloomberg explains in this regard that “both economies had agriculture largely to thank: in South Africa, a bumper corn harvest following the worst drought in more than a century saw the sector surge 34 percent from the prior quarter, while in Nigeria, where farming vies with industries as the second-biggest contributor to GDP, it increased 3 percent from a year earlier despite the period being in the planting season”. In both countries, as in others, growth remains fragile. A slight change in world prices (cereals, oil, for example) can reduce the economy.

The political and security situation can also affect investment, and therefore growth capacity. And then the situation of these two countries is very different: Nigeria is the leading producer of crude oil and the most populous country in Africa today and needs at least 3% growth just to absorb the growth of its population. I am not even talking about creating enough jobs for all the young people who arrive every year on the labor market.

South Africa remains the most industrialized country on the continent, but its population, so its market, is not very large. The country already has important infrastructure, including nuclear power plants, and significant natural resources, but is it sufficient to maintain a high rate of growth that ensures a better standard of living for all?

The link between growth and the well-being of populations, which might seem obvious, is not an absolute rule. The example of Nigeria is enlightening, because if the country finally emerges from one of the worst economic phases of its history, it should be remembered that between 2004 and 2010, when its economy grew on average 8.32% per year, observers noted with surprise that the level of poverty was increasing from 54.7% to 60.9% of the population.

The growth of the economy does not mean an equitable distribution of wealth. Nigeria is no exception to a trend seen elsewhere, namely the widening gap between the very rich and the very poor, and the large increase of the very poor share of the population.

Only long-term growth-sustaining programs and equitable redistribution of the fruits of this growth can lead to an improvement in the situation over time.

Faced with the galloping demographics, what public policies?

I am following up with my latest thoughts on the demographic transition that our continent is experiencing. We have posed the problem in its major trends in our last post, but it is also appropriate, I believe, to see how we can deal with this phenomenon.

One of the levers on which it is possible to act to better control the growth of the population is fertility. It has been said that this involves the education of girls and young women and raising awareness about the challenges of an uncontrolled population increase. Unfortunately, some leaders still view population’s growth as a mark of power, and rely on the so-called demographic dividend, but too often forget that this dividend is only possible if everything else follows, from infrastructure to health specialists and schoolteachers.

Let me explain: without effective education and health infrastructures, without decent jobs creation by the millions, younger generations will not be well trained, will not enter the labor market and will not be healthy. They will therefore be able to participate only at the margin in the national economic wealth creation, if these young people still live long enough to become active workers and find a job. Another growing phenomenon, due in large part to the lack of good education and health infrastructures, is the ever-growing illegal migration phenomenon. Indeed, it seems obvious that the tens of thousands of young people who cross the Sahara then the Mediterranean Sea at the risk of their lives and also take the risk of leaving everything, are part of this issue because they feel they have nothing to lose in this adventure. This message of despair must challenge us, because if the population continues to grow at this rate, emigrants will be more and more numerous.

Governments must therefore look at ways and means to lower the fertility rate. We have already ruled out coercion to achieve this goal. But there are other strategies, other public policies that can be tried or implemented. This has been seen in some countries, such as South Africa, Kenya and Malawi. In Ethiopia, for example, the government has set up a tight network of 42,000 community health workers. These have reduced the cost of health expenditures by 39% between 2005 and 2015, which is already a good achievement in itself, but they have also helped raise awareness among millions of women about birth control. This experience could be expanded to other countries, or even to the entire continent.

Another possible lever is family planning. In 2011, nine governments in West Africa, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) and several large private foundations signed an agreement, the “Ouagadougou Partnership”, intended to promote family planning. There are religious, political and social obstacles, but family planning remains one of the proven methods of reducing fertility, provided access to reliable contraceptive methods is available. In this area also public policies can be put in place. And if states do not want to engage directly, they can support and encourage free work on the part of some specialized NGOs.

According to the available studies, in 2013 worldwide, 63% of women aged 15-49 years who are in a couple used a contraceptive method, and 57% a modern method (pill, IUD or sterilization). But for sub-Saharan Africa, only an average of 20-25% of women had access to contraception, with some countries falling below 10%, such as Mali and Eritrea.

As such, North Africa is an exception on the continent. Algeria, Egypt, Morocco or Tunisia have experienced faster population transitions with a current fertility rate of between two to three children per woman. A figure that can be linked to the high proportion of contraceptive use: between 60% and 68%. South of the Sahara, only South Africa is getting near this global average with 60%.

This demonstrates that public policies can effectively address the challenge of reducing fertility. We just have to do it.

Birth control or better development policies?

It seems that time has come to debate the demography of Africa. Reports, experts and politicians have been concerned for some time on the subject, which is sensitive in most developing countries, of the rapidly growing population and sometimes even dealing with the idea of birth control. Some are referring to some ancient theories, like Malthus’, and, not without a certain logic, compare the rate of population growth with the rate of growth of the economy. Others are witnessing in the demographic growth a sign of liveliness and future wealth for our countries.

Let us first look at the figures: the latest report by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), “World Population Prospects, the 2017 revision”, indicates that Africa will have nearly 4.5 billion inhabitants by 2100, 40% of humanity compared to 1.3 billion today (17% of the total population). Africa will have a population comparable to that of Asia (Asia should see its population stabilize at 4.8 billion, whereas it is 4.5 billion today – 60% of the world population). The global population should then be 11.2 billion inhabitants compared with 7.5 today.

By 2030, Nigeria is supposed to account for 410 million inhabitants, more than the United States. The UN report adds an interesting point: most of the world’s population growth should be concentrated in only nine countries, most of them in Africa: Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Currently, the African population is growing by 2.5% against 1.7 at the world level.

Population growth is due to several factors: the fertility rate (5.5 in 2006 vs. 5.0 in 2016) is very high – with Niger’s extreme example of 7.4 children per woman of reproductive age – but also the increase in life expectancy which has gained 20 years in Africa since 1950 and is now 57 years old. One point to remember also: population density in Africa is one of the lowest in the world.

Of course, one can’t be as specific about the rates of economic growth. But the optimistic projections indicate for the coming years a growth of 4 to 6 points per year in Africa. A figure envied by most other regions of the world. We have already said how much these growth rates did not take into account the whole economic reality of our countries, the informal sector in particular, and that they were often distorted in one way or another. Faced with this situation, which party to choose? Should we even choose a camp? Is it possible? At a time when China has reversed its enforced policy of birth control, Africa must in turn try to limit births by constraint, while studies show the desired number of children per woman in Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is greater than five?

Children are still seen in Africa as a source of wealth and an economic and social safety net: manpower for farming and other works, but also pension insurance in countries that do not have any system of the sort. These are all factors that must be taken into account and which make it impossible for us to adopt binding policies. Besides, no one reckons that China has been handicapped in its economic development by its strong demographic and its 1.3 billion inhabitants.

On the other hand, making women’s health and education a priority, fostering access to modern means of contraception while creating the conditions for the real emancipation of women and girls so that they can choose to or not undergo their pregnancies, that could lead to lower fertility rates.

The Africa we want cannot happen without African women

As we talk more and more about the second liberation of Africa and economic liberation, one cannot avoid thinking also of Africans who represent more than half of the continent’s population: Women. Should we also consider this question in terms of a new liberation, an emancipation? Would not it be more constructive to look at the situation of the 410 million African women today, and then to see how to help them more?

Recently, I was struck by a figure – according to UNICEF, if all girls in Africa went to primary school, maternal mortality would be reduced by 70 percent. That would be 50,000 lives saved each year. What would be the implications of this with regards curbing of sexually transmitted diseases, or improving children’s daily diet? The prospect is mind blowing.

Access to education for girls, which varies greatly from country to country, remains a priority. We need to identify weak links and bottlenecks in order to ensure access to education for girls and young women. More than a bet on the future, it is an economic and political necessity. That is particularly true when we take into account that about 28 million girls and teenagers, who are of school age, will probably never go to school for even a single day in their lives…

The issue is also economic because women represent half of our continent’s human resources. In agriculture, 40 percent of agricultural work is carried out by women, but yet they produce 80 percent of food in households. It should also be pointed out that unemployment affects them more than men: 10.6 percent of women are unemployed, compared with 8.2 percent men, according to the World Bank.

In Africa too, disparities are significant, for instance in Uganda, Tanzania and Malawi, where the number of women in the fields exceeds 50 percent. In Ethiopia and Niger, on the other hand, they account for only 29 percent and 24 percent respectively of the overall workforce. According to FAO, “Enabling women to participate more effectively in agricultural activities means reducing the number of people suffering from hunger and malnutrition in all its forms. It also improves the well-being of children and families, which contributes to training human capital for future generations and long-term economic growth.”

On the other hand, thanks to quotas such as those in Burkina Faso and Rwanda, the representation of women in parliament has increased significantly. In sub-Saharan Africa, women’s representation was 22.3 percent in 2015, compared to only 8 per cent in 1995. At the global level, the figure is 22.1 percent. This is a big step forward for Africa.

However, much remains to be done. Equality is not yet a reality despite the progress made. Violence against women, genital mutilation and forced marriages remain a reality. As the UN stresses, “Despite the adoption of innumerable international conventions and protocols that reaffirm gender equality, discrimination and prejudice hold back the emancipation of African women. In virtually every sector of activity, women on the continent are still struggling to gain recognition of their right to live in dignity.” This at a time when we are talking about the necessity to reduce births in Africa. How do we do it without involving women?

Initiatives exist to highlight and promote the role of women in this new phase of our history. The Women Advancing Africa Forum, organised by Mrs Graça Machel in Tanzania this summer, aims to celebrate the central role of women in shaping African development and their capacity to lead social and economic change. The aim is to ensure that women on the one hand are emancipated and participate directly, but also to ensure they are recognised, in the development of Africa, in making positive strides towards “The Africa We Want.”

Invest strategically in higher education

The demographic development of Africa poses major infrastructure and equipment problems for our States. This is particularly true for the Education sector. Since nature loathes the void, where states do not or can not accept hundreds of thousands, even millions of students of the superior, non-state institutions are set up.

This is true of the growing number of Christian universities or Koranic schools that are more concerned with primary education. For our States, education of the youth must of course be a priority, but the means, despite a generally strong economic growth, are often lacking. Yet, education is one of the primary human rights. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 4 aims to ensure “access to quality education for all, equality of access, and promoting opportunities for lifelong learning ‘. The increase in enrollment is an undeniable success, especially for girls too often excluded from school. But this also poses a problem for higher education, which is struggling to welcome those who wish to go further in studying. They are too rare, but yet African national universities can not meet the demand. Hence the gap we were talking about earlier.

In the 1950s there were only 41 higher education institutions in Africa with 16,500 students. In 2010, 5.2 million students are enrolled in 668 universities in sub-Saharan Africa, more than a doubling since 2000. Faced with this tidal wave, it is understandable that states are struggling to keep afloat University institutions worthy of the name, capable of accommodating the students in comfortable conditions, and to provide them with a diverse and quality teaching, adapted also and especially to the national future needs of human resources.

Because Education is part of a whole and normally participates in the deployment of a long-term strategy of developing countries by setting up training axes. For example, West Africa today lacks skilled labor for the mining industry or mining engineers, while the region is experiencing an unprecedented mining boom. International mining companies are therefore obliged to call on expatriates for a number of fields of competence, and sometimes at best, they train their West African colleagues to replace them. But the ideal would be to have training institutes, mining schools, for example at the regional level (ECOWAS), which would train young people in these trades which enjoys more and more jobs opportunities.

The reality nowadays is that private institutions, often linked to religious obediences, respond in the place of the State to the needs of higher education. On the other side of the spectrum, this situation of academic indigence also pushes some of the best elements to go abroad, often in the West but also and more and more in some Arab countries, to study. This is part of the brain drain and skill deficit. The example of doctors is probably the most illustrative. This is also true of university professors, who are often discouraged by the lack of resources, recognition, public investment and adequate infrastructure to accommodate ever more students. African governments have therefore allowed the development of private universities, which are predominantly Christian.

In Ghana, for example, there were only two private universities in 1999, now 28. Nigeria has authorized 61 private institutions since 1999, of which 31 are Christian. This situation raises, of course, the question of State control over higher education both in terms of the content of teaching and the integration of education into a traditional republican culture independent of religious denominations. Not to mention the possibility that education is being held hostage to a political struggle that has nothing to do with the country where the private university is located, as was the case recently in East Africa.

With regard to education, the African Union (AU) Agenda 2063 provides that at least 70% of all African high school students have access to higher education, which represents an eight-fold increase in the current rate registration.

To achieve these objectives, our states will therefore have to invest more in education, in partnership with the private sector, increase standardization of programs and controls of private institutions and define clear training strategies in line with their developmental needs.