Reform of tax systems one of the best ways to finance development

In early December, the European Union (EU) published  a list of 17 countries now considered tax havens. Among this list, only two African countries were pinned by Brussels: Tunisia and Namibia. Another list, the “gray” one, should be published soon with the countries that have made commitments to be followed, on which, it is said,  Morocco and Cape Verde should appear.

My idea is obviously not to name and shame this or this country, especially as this list compiled by the European authorities is subjective and is sometimes based on more than questionable criteria. It should also be noted that not one single European country appears on the list, considering that they are supposed to apply European law in the fight against fraud…

But I would like to draw attention to the fiscal issue African states are facing and to the scourge of tax evasion. While Africa is still too often perceived (for all the reasons we know), as a continent dependent on official development assistance, our continent has potential resources that it actually lets evaporate each year. This problem goes well beyond the African continent. For instance, the OECD has made the issue of transfer pricing a priority in recent years.

According to the high-level group sponsored by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the African Union (AU), it is estimated that illicit financial flows out of Africa amount to between $ 50 and $ 60 billion each year. And again, this estimate probably underplays reality, given the difficulty of evaluating these transactions and the lack of data on this subject. Between 1970 and 2008, illicit financial flows cost Africa between $ 854 and $ 1.8 trillion, according to estimates by the high-level group dealing with illicit financial flows from Africa. Another organization, the Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation (ICRICT), estimates that between $ 40 and $ 80 billion are lost each year in Africa. In any case, these figures are staggering.

These illicit flows include, of course, criminal activity of any kind and the transfer of funds from corruption, but they do not constitute the majority of these flows. The bulk of the flows actually come from traditional trade, a combination of tax evasion and avoidance. The first refers to the actual fraud that is illegal, while the second is for a company (or an individual) to take advantage of loopholes in the tax system of a state, to reduce the amount of its levies, which is supposedly legal though deeply immoral. The porous border between evasion and tax avoidance means that both strategies need to be fought hard.

The challenge is twofold. On the one hand, the establishment of increased inter-state cooperation to respond to this challenge is essential. Indeed, companies profit very logically from dissonances between different governments on the international tax system. Several countries are openly betting on a leveling down of tax incentives, to the detriment of many. On the other hand, public administrations too often suffer from a lack of technical expertise in the face of multinationals backed by international law firms helping them to implement aggressive tax avoidance strategies. In order to combat this phenomenon, the first step is the construction and drafting of strengthened legislation, taking into account the various tax avoidance practices, particularly the thorny issue of transfer pricing.

This legislation will only be worth the value of the ability of our tax administrations to implement them.

This is notably the fight of the Forum on African Tax Administration (ATAF), a platform dedicated to promoting mutual cooperation between African tax administrations (and other relevant and interested stakeholders) and aimed at improving the efficiency of their tax laws and administrations. The organization often cites the case of Uganda, which has become aware of this issue and has begun implementing the necessary reforms. In 2015, these reforms allowed Kampala to win a dispute with Heritage Oil for some $ 400 million before the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).

Taxation is an essential element for the economic and social development of African countries. It enables the fair and equitable sharing of the costs and benefits of development, contributes to the creation of a stable environment for economic operators and finances infrastructure needs at the material and social level. This is why reform of tax systems is one of the best ways to finance development, making it possible to strengthen the autonomy of governments. African governments must therefore seize this project as a priority, in order to be able to rely on the fiscal pillar to collect the resources they need to finance their development strategies.

In memory of Pr. Calestous Juma

I would like to formally pay my respect one last time to my dear friend Calestous Juma who passed away last week. Of course, my first thoughts go to his family and friends. But I think they won’t be the only ones deeply affected by his passing.

For a whole generation, and maybe for future generations of leaders, he was an exceptional teacher and thinker as well as one of the shining lights of Africa in the intellectual sphere. Famous for his good spirits and readiness to help out others, he was as charming and charismatic as he was demanding. His vision was one of openness and sound debate.

But although he was one of the most optimistic people I had the chance to meet, he did not take a rose tinted view of Africa’s place in the world, be it from an economic or political standpoint. For instance, he was noticeably quick to pinpoint shortcomings in the conventional narrative about Africa, either overpessimistic or overoptimistic.

His greatest works such as In Land We Trust or Innovation and its Enemies revolved around fundamentals topics for a truly African-led revolution, both political and economical (biological diversity, technological innovation, property rights…). He charted the path to our true emancipation, keeping in mind the importance of taking a pan-African perspective if we want to overcome our challenges.

I remember a few particularly illuminating texts he wrote and that also helped me better define my views of the continent’s development and its place in the world.

For instance this one about industrialization and what he called “the misplaced promise of Africa’s mobile revolution”, helped to deconstruct a myth often played up in the media about the quasi-magical power of new technologies to industrialize Africa. Far from being idealistic, and though he was such a pioneering scholar, he was a very down to earth and dedicated proponent of pragmatic solutions.

Most of his business plan for Africa rested on the physical infrastructure and agricultural revolution he never ceased to promote. He placed them at the center of the continent’s long-term economic transformation but was particularly keen on innovation to achieve this, as he demonstrates in a fascinating book, The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa.

For generations of students lucky enough to benefit from his teaching, he will remain one of the most humble and yet noticeable voices from our continent. His voice will be sorely missed but the ones he inspired will keep him alive and well among us. Let’s hope he inspired many vocations. This would be the best tribute we could pay to his memory.

African countries are building a giant free-trade area

They have long traded with the world, now they want to trade with each other.

“AFRICA must unite,” wrote Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana’s first president, in 1963, lamenting that African countries sold raw materials to their former colonisers rather than trading among themselves. His pan-African dream never became reality. Even today, African countries still trade twice as much with Europe as they do with each other (see chart). But that spirit of unity now animates a push for a Continental Free-Trade Area (CFTA), involving all 55 countries in the region. Negotiations began in 2015, aimed at forming the CFTA by the end of this year. In contrast to the WTO, African trade talks are making progress.

At a meeting on December 1st and 2nd in Niamey, the capital of Niger, African trade ministers agreed on final tweaks to the text. Heads of state will probably sign it in March, once an accompanying protocol on goods has been concluded (agreement on services has already been reached). But trade barriers will not tumble overnight. The CFTA will come into force only when 15 countries have ratified it. Even then, the deal only sets a framework, within which some details of tariff reduction have still to be worked out. Separate negotiations, covering competition, investment and intellectual-property rights, are yet to begin.

Nonetheless, technocrats are keen to talk up the agreement. Chiedu Osakwe, Nigeria’s chief negotiator and chairman of the negotiating forum, sees it as a “massive historical opportunity” to escape the colonial legacy. Some 82% of African countries’ exports go to other continents; they consist mostly of commodities. By contrast, over half of intra-African trade is in manufactured products. Supporters of the deal argue that it will create larger, more competitive markets, helping to ignite Africa’s stalled industrialisation.

African leaders also have an eye on relations with the rest of the world. No longer able to count on unilateral trade concessions from rich countries, they are instead being forced into reciprocal deals, which involve more give-and-take. A strong CFTA would give Africa extra weight in talks with Europe and America, argues George Boateng of the African Centre for Economic Transformation, a pan-African think-tank.

Yet political pressure to rush negotiations may weaken the final text. The CFTA aims to eliminate tariffs on 90% of products over five to ten years, which is less ambitious than it sounds. Much intra-African trade is already between members of smaller free-trade areas, such as the Southern African Development Community. The rest is concentrated in a small range of goods. Peter Draper of Tutwa Consulting, a South African firm, notes that, by retaining tariffs on just 5% of products, African countries could in effect exclude most of their current imports from liberalisation.

A study by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa estimates that, with the CFTA, intra-African trade would be 52% higher in 2022 than it was in 2010. Since that assumes the removal of all tariffs, the actual effect will almost certainly be more modest. Research also shows that the largest gains come not from reducing tariffs, but from cutting non-tariff barriers and transport times. That will come as no surprise to drivers in the long lines of lorries queuing at a typical African border post. The World Bank estimates that it takes three-and-a-half weeks for a container of car parts to pass Congolese customs.

African countries have a mixed record on easing trade. A new one-stop border post has slashed the time taken to move cargo from Tanzania to Uganda by 90%. But even as tariffs have come down, east African countries are also erecting new non-tariff barriers, such as divergent standards for goods. Informal traders, most of them women, report harassment and extortion at borders. Meanwhile multiple deadlines have been missed on the road to the Tripartite Free-Trade Area, a separate scheme to link three regional blocs.

Free trade runs counter to political currents in many countries, including South Africa and Nigeria, where governments fear losing control over industrial policy. They also worry about losing tariff revenues, because they find other taxes hard to collect. Patience over the CFTA may be a virtue, if it gives countries more time to adjust. The technocrats are optimistic. “You create the foundation, then you can build the house,” says Prudence Sebahizi, the African Union’s chief technical adviser on the CFTA. “Even if it takes many years.”

Resetting the Africa-Europe Relationship

Africa faces a broad range of development challenges, and overcoming them will require huge sums of foreign aid and investment. But as Africa develops, its people will also need partners who recognize that there are mutual benefits to engaging with the continent’s mobile and highly-educated base of human capital.

JOHANNESBURG – In October, the European Union announced a plan to invest €40 billion ($47.6 billion) in Africa, a “Marshall Plan” for the continent that would boost economic growth, create jobs, and, ultimately, slow the migration of young Africans to Europe. “Words won’t convince migrants to stay at home,” European Parliament President Antonio Tajani said. “We must give them a chance to have a decent life.”Tajani is right. Unfortunately, his approach is not.

For almost 60 years, well-meaning foreign governments, many of them European, have poured huge sums of money into Africa, with little to show for it. Lasting solutions to Africa’s development challenges require funding, to be sure, but they also demand a significant recalibration in relations with foreign partners. And Africa’s relationship with Europe may require the biggest overhaul of all.

The problem goes much deeper than money; one might even say it’s philosophical. Africa and Europe have a very old relationship, marked by complexity and pain. Europe imposed its system of governance, values, and more recently, approaches to trade, long claiming that Africans need to be trained, to modernize, and to emphasize “capacity building.” This patronizing partnership has run its course, and it is crucial that we change the dynamic.

Meetings like the fifth African Union-European Union summit, which wrapped up last week in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, are a good start. The meeting, which focused on “investing in youth,” put a spotlight on the complex links between the sides. One conclusion was clear: the EU’s current answer to addressing migration from Africa is outdated. If Europe’s strategy to solve its migration challenges relies on money alone, it will fail.

We are a long way from the lopsided dynamic that defined African-European relations during the colonial era. Today, Europe may need Africa more than Africa needs Europe, especially if one considers human capital.

Over the next 15 years, some 440 million Africans will enter the job market, compared to 72 million in Europe. Africa’s job seekers will need work, and Europe will have it. An aging population is already putting a squeeze on Europe’s growth, and vacancies are forecast to multiply amid a shrinking labor pool. There is even a strong possibility that, in the long run, it will be African young people who pay for the care of European pensioners. These demographic differences underscore the potential benefits of rethinking economic and political relations.

Without migration, the redistributive policies on which European welfare states depend will be unable to withstand the current rate of aging. Not only will finding the staff to care for an aging population become more difficult; obtaining sufficient revenue to fund social security systems will also become harder as the dependency ratio rises. Migration policies that emphasize mobility are essential to support European industries, household consumption and, ultimately, the financing of social benefits.

Because strategic competitors like China and India have already identified the human-capital potential of Africa’s youth, Europe must move quickly to attract and retain – rather than repel – African professionals. Of the 375,000 students from the continent who study abroad each year, many will establish businesses and find their own place in a globalized economy upon graduation. There is already growing competition in the US, Canada, China, the Middle East, and Africa itself to attract these highly educated and mobile students.

Just as sixteenth-century Europe needed African gold, twenty-first-century Europe cannot do without the African diaspora. Which other world region can offer similar market potential for European industries faced with declining demand and or subdued growth in both their domestic and traditional export markets?

That is why it is more important than ever that Europe not engage in an administrative bean-counting exercise, in which other economies will always appear stronger. Instead, the EU should commit to mutually beneficial employment schemes that maximize the strengths of people and cultures on both continents, notably through skills transfer.

Europe’s recognition of its need for Africa is a necessary paradigm shift, leading, one hopes, to reasoned collaboration. In an increasingly uncertain world, Africa and Europe can set the foundations for a smarter partnership by changing the basis of their cooperation.

Failure to do so will be costly. But most of that cost will be borne by Europe. With alternative partners already courting their talent, it is not Africa that will be hurt the most by the missed opportunity.

 

 

Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture for inclusive development

Johannesburg, November 28, 2017 – Every day that passes, we are learning and getting more convinced on the inevitability of ensuring our agricultural systems are climate smart. Climate-smart agriculture is the reform to ensure the way agriculture is practiced remains compatible with man-made climate changes, securing short-and-long-term resilience in productive capacity of the agricultural systems.

This was the sentiment at the 4th Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture, convened in Johannesburg, South Africa, on 28 November.

In his opening remarks, Dr Ibrahim Mayaki, CEO of the NEPAD Agency, highlighted the importance of climate smart agriculture towards inclusive development. “The Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture is for the first time being held in Africa. This is an extraordinary moment for Africa and the world at large, [as it is about what] goes to the core of the efforts to attain the inclusive development goals set in both Africa’s Agenda 2063 and the global SDGs,” said Dr Mayaki.

At the centre of the efforts for development in this context, are the following three issues: Firstly, important under the theme of the conference is the challenge presented to science and policies, in terms of how to bring the science-policy nexus to directly bear on accelerating and expanding the evolution, adaptation and up-take of farming practices that are climate smart.

Secondly, is the issue of science and what this means with regard to innovations and advancing the locally adapted climate smart farming and food systems practices.

Thirdly, the context of fostering implementation calls for the conversation to be among all practitioners, policy makers, business interests as well as academia and civil society.

Dr Phil Mjwara, Director General of the Department of Science and Technology in South Africa, reiterated the importance of upscaling climate smart agriculture, adding that food security, adaptation and mitigation are referred to as the “triple win” of climate-smart agriculture.

During the opening session of the conference, Martin Bwalya, NEPAD Agency’s Head of Programme Development pointed out that, “Climate Smart Agriculture can only be a success if it is a success globally, since food systems and climate variability do not have boundaries.”

Also speaking at the conference, Prof Diran Makinde, Senior Advisor in the NEPAD Industrialisation, Science, Technology and Innovation Hub, remarked that NEPAD Agency is leading on research that includes precision agriculture for increased impact and results.

In his closing statement, Dr Mayaki remarked that, “Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture, specifically, and the advancement of climate smart farming systems, is a key part of the African Union and NEPAD’s commitment to sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development.”

Practicing Climate Smart Agriculture will directly impact on:

  •   Sustainablyincreasingagriculturalproductivityandincomesin order to meet national food security and development goals
  •   Buildingresilienceandthecapacityofagriculturalandfood systems to adapt to climate change;
  •   Ensuringthatagriculturecontributestomitigateemissionsof greenhouse gases or increase carbon sequestration.

    Close to 300 participants attended the conference, with representa- tion from all five continents (Africa, North America, Latin America, Asia and Europe). Convening partners of the 4th Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture include the NEPAD Agency, South Africa’s Department of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, GIZ, CIRAD, IRD, CTA, Wageningen University, CGIAR, CCAFS, AGRA, CCARDESA, Forum for Agricultural Research on Africa, and the African Capacity Building Foundation.

Women and Youth economic empowerment at core of NEPAD Agency discussions in Abidjan

Abidjan, November 27, 2017 – The NEPAD Agency in partnership with the Spanish Agency for International Development and Cooperation today hosted a high-level session, on “Technical, Vocational and Education Training (TVET) and Skills for African Youth” session.

The event which took place on the margin of the 6th EU-Africa Business Forum in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire brought together representatives of African Union and European Union Member States and various stakeholders involved in women and youth empowerment and skills development- development partners, private sector, civil society, business leaders and other stakeholders including women and youth entrepreneurs and networks.

In his opening remarks, the NEPAD Agency CEO, Dr Ibrahim Mayaki highlighted that skills development remains a crucial factor in unlocking the potential of African women and youth.

“We need to move away from business as usual because we are already aware of our shortfalls therefore we need to focus on strategies that show impact. In order to do this, it is crucial to adopt a multi-sectoral approach when implementing projects and our job creation initiatives must have a multi-sectoral outlook. The NEPAD Spanish Fund has managed to do this well, by establishing the needs on the ground, creating projects that cater to those needs and capacitating women to empower themselves,” said Dr Mayaki.

Africa is home to some of the world’s fastest growing economies but its’ women and youth still remain the greatest untapped assets. African leaders are recognising the urgency of investing in these women and youth in order to accelerate inclusive economic growth and achieve the objectives set out in the

AU’s Agenda 2063 and the Global Vision 2030, which both call for people centred strategies that identify education, skills development and economic empowerment as key drivers of development.

Recent studies show that one fourth of the world’s population will be African by 2050 while almost half of the world’s youth will come from Africa by 2100. By 2035, the continent will have a larger working age population than India or China and a labour force, 3 times larger than Europe’s by 2050. Meanwhile, women represent more than half of Africa’s population and 60% of Africans are under the age of 25. The continent therefore needs to manage its demographic dividend in order to ensure growth and poverty reduction.

Representing the Government of Germany, Mr Guenter Nooke, German Chancellor’s Special Representative for Africa, elaborated on the German support towards youth empowerment.

“Germany has decided to support the African Union and the NEPAD Agency in its endeavours for training and employment of young people. Today we pledged 28 Million Euros for the Skills Initiative for Africa project and 3 Euros for the implementation of the African Policy Framework of Migration which has a link to labour migration,” he said.

The event showcased targeted interventions that contribute to women and youth economic empowerment resulting in employment opportunities and sustained livelihoods.

Lessons were also drawn from the NEPAD Spanish Fund for African Women’s Empowerment flagship project which to date has empowered over 1.2 million women.

“ Our current Master Plan continues to prioritise gender equality as one of the fundamental goals for development, the NEPAD Spain Fund for the empowerment of African women with the aim of improving African women’s life and specially to speed up the improvement of their economic situation,” said Christina Diaz Fernandez-Gil, Representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Spain.

NEPAD WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME

The NEPAD Spanish Fund (NSF) for African Women’s focuses on Women’s economic empowerment. To date, the Fund has implemented 77 projects in 35 countries in Sub Sahara Africa. More than one million women have benefited directly from the Fund in areas such as business and vocational skills training, enabling environment for women entrepreneur, access to finance and job creation. In many cases, these interventions brought structural changes in the promotion of women and youth entrepreneurship business in Sub Sahara Africa.

SKILLS AND EMPLOYMENT FOR YOUTH PROGRAMME

The NEPAD Agency has developed a Skills and Employment for Youth Programme (SEFY). As a central pillar, the SEFY uses existing African Union sector policy development frameworks (e.g. Infrastructure-PIDA; Agriculture- CAADP) to stimulate public and private sector investments to generate economic opportunities and critical quantity and quality of jobs along national priority productive sectors. Programmatic actions aim to provide support to strengthen evidence based national development policy and strategy development; enhancing youth skills development including harmonisation of Technical Vocational and Education Training (TVET) frameworks; as well as strengthening policy and institutional support for supportive entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Africa: Rural Employment, Innovative Financing and Agricultural Development to Accelerate Sustainable Growth in Africa

Following our session “High level on Technical, Vocational and Education Training and Skills for African Youth” I am sharing with you a very relevant article from Fati N’zi Hassane, the  Head of Program, Skills and Employment for Youth, NEPAD.

Africa is often described as the world’s youngest continent: 220 million Africans are between 15 and 25 and are expected to be around 350 million by 2030. Such youth is certainly a great opportunity but it is also a challenge, especially considering that certain factors, if not managed properly, like youth employment, have the potential to become strong threats for our societies. We therefore urgently need to find sustainable prospects for these new generations in order to take advantage of their fantastic energy and prevent them from becoming a challenge.

Like anywhere else in the world – the UN estimates that 66% of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by 2050 – young Africans living in rural areas are virtually connected to the outside world. They dream of leaving their villages and aspire to modernity. However, many of these young people from the rural exodus quickly find themselves caught up in a very precarious situation, which is often due to poorly controlled urban development.

Just like urban policies are key for the continent’s growth, employment and rural development are crucial elements, even though their importance tends to be overlooked. Let us recall that a considerable number of young people will be entering the labour market in the coming years: nothing less than 440 million young Africans aged between15 to 35 by 2030, two thirds of whom will be coming from rural areas.

Full article here

Banking on African Infrastructure

Africa faces a yawning gap between its infrastructure needs and its ability to attract the foreign investment required to finance projects. The continent’s leaders must recommit to creating a more favorable investment climate, one that can attract capital while limiting investors’ risk exposure.

JOHANNESBURG – As the US Federal Reserve embarks on the “great unwinding” of the stimulus program it began nearly a decade ago, emerging economies are growing anxious that a stronger dollar will adversely affect their ability to service dollar-denominated debt. This is a particular concern for Africa, where, since the Seychelles issued its debut Eurobond in 2006, the total value of outstanding Eurobonds has grown to nearly $35 billion.

But if the Fed’s ongoing withdrawal of stimulus has frayed African nerves, it has also spurred recognition that there are smarter ways to finance development than borrowing in dollars. Of the available options, one specific asset class stands out: infrastructure.

Africa, which by 2050 will be home to an estimated 2.6 billion people, is in dire need of funds to build and maintain roads, ports, power grids, and so on. According to the World Bank, Africa must spend a staggering $93 billion annually to upgrade its current infrastructure; the vast majority of these funds – some 87% – are needed for improvements to basic services like energy, water, sanitation, and transportation.

Yet, if the recent past is any guide, the capital needed will be difficult to secure. Between 2004 and 2013, African states closed just 158 financing deals for infrastructure or industrial projects, valued at $59 billion – just 5% of the total needed. Given this track record, how will Africa fund even a fraction of the World Bank’s projected requirements?

The obvious source is institutional and foreign investment. But, to date, many factors, including poor profit projections and political uncertainty, have limited such financing for infrastructure projects on the continent. Investment in African infrastructure is perceived as simply being too risky.

Fortunately, with work, this perception can be overcome, as some investors – such as the African Development Bank, the Development Bank of Southern Africa, and the Trade & Development Bank – have already demonstrated. Companies from the private sector are also profitably financing projects on the continent. For example, Black Rhino, a fund set up by Blackstone, one of the world’s largest multinational private equity firms, focuses on the development and acquisition of energy projects, such as fuel storage, pipelines, and transmission networks.

But these are the exceptions, not the rule. Fully funding Africa’s infrastructure shortfall will require attracting many more investors – and swiftly.

To succeed, Africa must develop a more coherent and coordinated approach to courting capital, while at the same time working to mitigate investors’ risk exposure. Public-private sector collaborations are one possibility. For example, in the energy sector, independent power producers are working with governments to provide electricity to 620 million Africans living off the grid. Privately funded but government regulated, these producers operate through power purchase agreements, whereby public utilities and regulators agree to purchase electricity at a predetermined price. There are approximately 130 such producers in Sub-Saharan Africa, valued at more than $8 billion. In South Africa alone, 47 projects are underway, accounting for 7,000 megawatts of additional power production.

Similar private-public partnerships are emerging in other sectors, too, such as transportation. Among the most promising are toll roads built with private money, a model that began in South Africa. Not only are these projects, which are slowly appearing elsewhere on the continent, more profitable than most financial market investments; they are also literally paving the way for future growth.

Clearly, Africa needs more of these ventures to overcome its infrastructure challenges. That is why I, along with other African business leaders and policymakers, have called on Africa’s institutional investors to commit 5% of their funds to local infrastructure. We believe that with the right incentives, infrastructure can be an innovative and attractive asset class for those with long-term liabilities. One sector that could lead the way on this commitment is the continent’s pension funds, which, together, possess a balance sheet of about $3 trillion.

The 5% Agenda campaign, launched in New York last month, underscores the belief that only a collaborative public-private approach can redress Africa’s infrastructure shortfall. For years, a lack of bankable projects deterred international financing. But in 2012, the African Union adopted the Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa, which kick-started more than 400 energy, transportation, water, and communications projects. It was a solid start – one that the 5% Agenda seeks to build upon.

But some key reforms will be needed. A high priority of the 5% Agenda is to assist in updating the national and regional regulatory frameworks that guide institutional investment in Africa. Similarly, new financial products must be developed to give asset owners the ability to allocate capital directly to infrastructure projects.

Unlocking new pools of capital will help create jobs, encourage regional integration, and ensure that Africa has the facilities to accommodate the needs of future generations. But all of this depends on persuading investors to put their money into African projects. As business leaders and policymakers, we must ensure that the conditions for profitability and social impact are not mutually exclusive. When development goals and profits align, everyone wins.

Financing Africa’s infrastructure and agricultural development: Inclusive growth for economic transformation

New York, 17 October 2017 –  The case for financing infrastructure and agricultural development was made at the United Nations headquarters during Africa Week.

Chair of the  Africa Group, Mr Mohamed Siad Doualeh, Permanent Representative of Djibouti to the United Nations, made the call to look at ways to mobilse resources, investment, capacities, skills and technology in order to facilitate agricultural and infrastructure development in Africa.

As envisaged in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and Agenda 2063, partnerships will be the essential means of implementation for these development frameworks. In this context, African leaders have prioritised domestic resource mobilisation, through enhancing economic growth, improving the tax system and expanding the tax base, and curbing illicit financial flows while promoting public-private partnerships, and leveraging remittances, financial markets and pension and sovereign wealth funds.

Financing infrastructure and agriculture projects requires an enabling environment that includes adequate skills in project preparation and management, the availability of adequate financial products and institutions, a business friendly environment, adequate hard and soft infrastructure including the legal framework, comprehensive risk management, and political leadership.

H.E Jakaya Kikwete, Former President of Tanzania , reiterated the need for resources to be increased for agriculture and infrastructure. “Since the Maputo declaration was made in 2003 through Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme [CAADP], many governments have increased their budgetary allocations to agriculture. However, mechanisation is still lacking and a number of challenges still remain. Therefore, more investment in agriculture and infrastructure is needed to achieve inclusive growth,” he said.

Dr Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, CEO of the NEPAD Agency, concurred with H.E Kiwete in stating that agriculuture in Africa was revitalised through CAADP.  “As the development agency of the African Union, NEPAD  implements  continental  strategies and builds coherent plans through frameworks such as CAADP for agriculture and PIDA for infrastrcuture,” Dr Mayaki said. “ These and other continental frameworks are embeded in Agenda 2063 through which regional and national coherence is built,” he added.

Dr Mayaki went on to state that energy is a good example of the link bewteen agriculture and infrastructure. “More bankable projects are needed to attract the much needed investment in infrastrutre, ensuring that returns are high and risks are low.  NEPAD Agency’s desrisking report shows that Africa is not as risky as was perceived,” Dr Mayaki said.

“With the underutilisation of resources, coupled with population growth, Africa has not yet achieved self-sufficency in food security,” Prof Victor Harison, Commissioner for Economic Affairs at the African Union Commission stated.

The Commissioner also remarked that rural infrastructure is essential to accelarate agricultural development, emphasising that infrasturure and agricultural developement are prerequisites for meeting goals in Agenda 2063 and SDGs.

World Bank Senior Vice President, Mr Mahmoud Moheildin’s presentation showed that following a sharp slow down, recovery is underway in Africa, South of the Sahara. GDP in the region is expected to strengthen to 2.4 percent on 2017/18  from 1.3 percent in 2016. However, growth in cereal yields in Africa has been consistently lower than in other years, with infrastructure deficit  holding back growth

Prof Al-Amin Abu-Manga, Member of the African Peer Review Panel of Emminent Persons concluded  that, “Africa has reoruces, what needs to be strengthened is governance thereof.”

Building public health delivery systems that support Africa’s industrialization

New York, 17 October 2017 – “It is a fact that Africa is the second most populous continent in the world, with the population projected to grow by 25% by 2050 and 40% by end of the century. Yet the continent has health challenges that need to be addressed in order to support the growing population,” Dr Ibrahim Mayaki, CEO of the NEPAD Agency made the remarks at the organisation’s event during Africa Week in New York.

During the event on Building public health delivery systems that support Africa’s industrialisation, Dr Mayaki underscored the fact that Africa’s Agenda 2063 and the Sustainable Development Goals call for promotion of inclusive and sustainable industrialisation. Pharmaceutical manufacturing and mining are among the priority sectors identified in AU’s programme for Accelerated Industrial Development in Africa (AIDA). Africa requires a healthy workforce in order to realise targets for industrialisation which demands an efficient public health delivery system.

Africa continues to grapple with high disease burden, weak health care delivery systems and fragmented markets for medical products and health technologies.  As the develoment agency of the African Union, NEPAD has taken critcial steps  to address the continent’s disease burden by building systems that provide enabling environment for pharmaceutical sector development. This is through the African Medicines Regulatory Harmonisation (AMRH) Initiative which provides a sound foundation for strengthening regulatory systems and establishment of strong institutions to ensure long term sustainability.

Other programmes that the NEPAD Agency is facilitating and coordinating in the health sector include, amongst others; malaria vector control, development of research for health and innovation strategy, scientific validation and value addition of herbal remedies in order to promote African Traditional Medicines.

In her opening remarks, NEPAD Agency’s Head of Health Programmes, Mrs Margareth Ndomondo-Sigonda maintained that, “You cannot talk of sustainable socio-economic growth without addressing the health of the people who are the drivers of industrialisation.”

During the event, participants explored available options for health financing; promotion of research and development and innovation on medical products and technologies including traditional medicines; local production of medical products and health technologies for stronger health care delivery systems.

Dr Janet Byaruhanga, from NEPAD’s Health programme focused on strenghtening regulatory systems, local production of medical products  and access to finance.  She stressed the need to provide conducive environment for the private sector to secure capital for increased investment  in this sector. In addition, the pharmaceutical sector has huge potential to create jobs for youth through the use of modern technologies.

Speaking on the promotion of investments and creating knowledge based jobs, in improving competitiveness as well as public health,  Dr Paul Lartey, founding Chair of Federation of African Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (FAPMA), made the case for reliable and sustainable capital for investment in manufacturing and assurance of compliance to good manufacturing practices and standards  in order to produce quality medicines.

The World Bank representative, Dr Andreas Seiter, Global Lead-Private Sector HNP, World Bank remarked that Africa should be proud of the achievements made in medicines regulatory harmonisation initiative. He indicated that progress made this far working through the reginal economic communities is commendable.  He highlited on achievements made in the East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the impact of the African Union Model Law on Medical Products Regulation in assisting countries to review their national laws, adding that the momentum should be maintained.

In addition, the NEPAD Agency is investing in the fight against Tuberculosis and other Occupational Lung Diseases in the Mining Industry starting with Southern Africa.  Mrs Chimwemwe Chamdimba, Principal Programme Officer pointed out that TB is the top killer among infectious disesases in Africa. Currently it is being tackled among the most vulnerable populations by looking from three angles: TB and HIV; TB and poverty, and; TB and mining.